$40 Million to Support Nassau Hub, Bringing Total State Investment to $131 Million Toward the $1.5 Billion Project--Creating a World-Class Housing, Retail, Office and Biotech Research Space
Also Announces $26.4 Million to Help Address Aging Septic Systems for Approximately 400 Homes in Oakdale
FY 2020 Executive Budget Protects New Yorkers from Washington's Devastating Federal Attacks, Strengthens the Middle Class, Safeguards the Environment, Provides Unprecedented Investments in Education, Protects the Health of Our Communities and Drives Our Infrastructure Forward
Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced $18.3 billion for Long Island is included in the FY 2020 executive budget, including $40 million dollars to support the Nassau Hub, bringing the total state investment to $131 million toward the $1.5 billion project. The Governor also announced $26.4 million to help address aging septic systems for approximately 400 homes in Oakdale.
The investments and initiatives in the Executive Budget protects New Yorkers from Washington's devastating federal attacks, strengthens the middle class, safeguards the environment, improves the health of our communities and invests in our infrastructure for the 21st century. For the ninth consecutive year, the Budget is balanced and holds spending growth below two percent.
"In the face of the federal administration's ongoing attacks on New York State, we are building on our record of accomplishments and protecting residents from the impacts of SALT and other misguided policies coming out of Washington," Governor Cuomo said. "From economic development to academia to transportation to the environment, our proposed budget includes the largest and most aggressive investment for Long Island in the history of the State of New York. This year is not about plans and visions, it's about getting big projects done and we will continue delivering results across the board with a balanced and on-time budget once again this year."
Governor Cuomo announced $40 million to Nassau County for public infrastructure improvements to support the Nassau Hub, bringing the total state investment to $131 million toward the $1.5 billion project. This investment is helping to create a vibrant commercial and residential development consisting of world-class housing, retail, office and biotech research space. The Governor also announced the state is providing $6 million for improvements to the Nassau Coliseum.
$26.4 Million to Help Address Aging Septic Systems in Oakdale
Governor Cuomo also announced that the state is dedicating $26.4 million to help address aging septic systems for approximately 400 homes in the Oakdale community, as part of a nearly $390 million program to kick start nitrogen-treating sewers in Suffolk County. Suffolk County will manage the multi-community project to extend sewers to an estimated 6,350 homes in Forge River, Carlls River, and Patchogue, in addition to hundreds of homes in Oakdale. Several communities recently passed referendums to help fund the project. In these communities situated along Suffolk County's southern coast, the county will undertake sewer extension projects. Nitrogen pollution degrades our ecosystems with severe algae blooms and destroys wetland and marsh systems that increase resiliency by providing a critical buffer against coastal storms. Nitrate contaminants can also get into groundwater and drinking water. Suffolk County has an estimated 360,000 septic systems and cesspools that do not remove nitrogen. An estimated 69 percent of nitrogen pollution in Suffolk County comes from these aging septic systems and cesspools, with the remainder from runoff, fertilizer, wastewater treatment plants, and atmospheric deposition. The investment announced today builds on the state's ongoing efforts to reduce nitrogen pollution as part of the Long Island Nitrogen Action Plan.
$100 Million in Transformative Economic Development Projects
The Executive Budget includes $100 million from existing capital resources for transformative projects on Long Island.
Governor Cuomo announced the State will launch the third phase of the Excelsior Scholarship—raising the income threshold to $125,000 and helping 26,100 students on Long Island attend college tuition free. In 2017, Governor Cuomo announced the Excelsior Scholarship, a first-of-its-kind in the nation program that provides tuition-free college at New York's public colleges and universities to families making up to $125,000 per year, alleviating the crushing burden of student debt placing and placing more New Yorkers on the path to financial security.
Governor Cuomo announced that the $130 million reconstruction of the Nassau Expressway will be complete this December. More than 400,000 people rely on Nassau Expressway as an emergency evacuation route, which was utilized during Hurricane Sandy. Infrastructure and safety improvements are needed to raise the road, which is approximately two-and-a-half feet below the 100-year floodplain, and improve an aging drainage system and soil underneath.
Governor Cuomo announced that 16 of the 39 passenger station modernizations across Long Island will be completed this year. As part of the Governor's $6.6 billion transformation of the Long Island Rail Road. After 70 years of stagnation, all 100 transformative LIRR capital projects are moving forward, including the Main Line Third Track, Double Track, Jamaica Station Reconstruction, 39 renovated Long Island Rail Road stations and grade crossing eliminations -- modernizing transportation across the region to provide a state-of-the-art system for Long Island.
Third Track Project
Governor Cuomo announced that construction on the first tunnel to replace a grade crossing will begin at Urban Avenue in New Cassel, advancing the historic Third Track project. The $2.6 billion expansion effort includes 50 projects to modernize 9.8 miles along the congested Main Line of the LIRR between Floral Park and Hicksville. Those projects include adding a third track, eliminating all seven street-level grade crossings within the project corridor, adding new power substations and parking, and modernizing track and signal infrastructure. Forty percent of LIRR riders pass through the Main Line.
Governor Cuomo also announced that at least 800 megawatts of new offshore wind projects will be awarded by this May. The Green New Deal increases New York's offshore wind target to nine gigawatts by 2035, by far the largest commitment in the country. Developing this industry will result in more than $25 billion of infrastructure investments, creating thousands of jobs for New Yorkers in an array of skilled positions. Long Island's world class labor force will fit seamlessly with the demands of offshore wind, ensuring that Long Island power will be built and supported by Long Islanders. NYSERDA estimates that achieving the Governor's target of nine gigawatts of offshore wind could power over six million New York households and result in more than 7,000 operations and maintenance jobs by 2035. In addition, Governor Cuomo has announced New York will invest up to $200 million in port infrastructure to match private sector investment and support the growth of this emerging industry. Long Island's waterfront port facilities and experienced maritime industries will be ideally suited to support the ongoing operations and maintenance demands of the offshore wind industry, providing long-term, good-paying jobs to Long Island residents.
Long Island Shellfish Restoration Project
The Budget includes an additional $4 million to create a state-of-the-art SUNY Stony Brook Shellfish Hatchery at Flax Pond. The Budget also includes $3.6 million to continue New York's ambitious shellfish restoration project to improve Long Island's water quality and bolster the economies and resiliency of coastal communities.
In 2017, Governor Cuomo announced a $10.4 million Long Island Shellfish Restoration Project to create new shellfish sanctuary sites in Shinnecock Bay, Bellport Bay, Huntington Harbor, South Oyster Bay and Hempstead Bay, build the Suffolk County Cornell Cooperative Extension to plant shellfish and partner with communities, and fund public hatchery improvement grants.
In the face of the federal administration's ongoing attacks on New York State, we are building on our record of accomplishments and protecting residents from the impacts of SALT and other misguided policies coming out of Washington.
Other Budget Highlights Include
Make Permanent the Property Tax Cap: Since the implementation of the tax cap in 2012, growth has averaged approximately 2% and the tax cap has produced approximately $8.7 billion in taxpayers' savings on Long Island, and $25 billion statewide.
Cut Middle Class Taxes: New York will continue the phased-in middle class tax cuts. In 2019, the reform will benefit 700,905 Long Islanders in 2019 with an average benefit of $382. Filers in Long Island earn the largest average tax cut in the State. When fully phased in (2025) the average benefit will be $847 in Long Island, making it the State's lowest middle-class tax rates in more than 70 years.
Eliminate Internet Tax Advantage: New York's brick and mortar retailers are currently at a disadvantage because many on-line retail competitors are not collecting sales tax. The Budget provides a consistent framework for collection of required sales taxes by marketplace providers, which will simplify sales tax enforcement and ease collection burdens for the retailers who sell through these platforms. In 2019, this reform is expected to increase sales tax revenue by $31 million in Nassau County and $33 million in Suffolk County.
Fight for the Full Deductibility of State and Local Taxes: Continue the lawsuit to protect New York and its taxpayers from Washington's drastic curtailment of the SALT deduction. The elimination of SALT deductibility will impact 530,000 Long Island taxpayers.
Building 21st Century Infrastructure
Road and Bridge Improvements: As part of the Governor's $100 Billion capital plan, the FY 2020 Executive Budget includes funding for road and bridge projects in the Long Island region, including:
- $19.8 million towards construction of the third phase of the Ocean Parkway shared-use path between Tobay and Captree State Park in the towns of Oyster Bay, Islip and Babylon.
- $11.5 million towards the rehabilitation of the Route 25 bridge over Route 107 in the Town of Oyster Bay.
- $4.7 million towards safety enhancements, including guiderail replacement, along the Sunken Meadow Parkway from Interstate 495 to the Sunken Meadow State Park toll booth on the towns of Smithtown and Islip.
- $33.6 million towards rehabilitation of the Robert Moses Causeway bridge over Fire Island Inlet in the Town of Islip.
CHIPS Local Highway Aid Program. The Budget provides $40.1 million in funding for local roads and bridges on Long Island through the CHIPS program.
PAVE NY Local Highway Aid Program. The Budget provides $9.2 million in funding for local roads on Long Island through the PAVE NY program.
Transit Operating Aid. The Budget provides $74.4 million in funding to Nassau County and $29.4 million to Suffolk County in FY 2020, increases of $5 million and almost $2 million from FY 2019, respectively. The Budget also provides nearly $3 billion in on-budget funding to the MTA in FY 2020. This includes aid to commuter rail systems.
Continuing New York's Bottom-Up Economic Development Strategy
Continued Investment in Tourism: The Budget includes $59.5 million to support the State's tourism campaign and attract visitors from around the world. The program includes a seventh round of $15 million in competitive funding through the Market NY initiative to support tourism marketing plans and projects that best demonstrate regional collaboration among counties to promote regional attractions. Tourism is New York's fourth largest employment sector.
Invest in Communities Across the State Through the Fourth Downtown Revitalization Initiative: The Downtown Revitalization Initiative is transforming downtown neighborhoods into vibrant communities where the next generation of New Yorkers will want to live, work and raise families. Participating communities are nominated by the State's ten REDCs based on the downtown's potential for transformation. Through three rounds of awards, each winning community was awarded $10 million to develop a downtown strategic investment plan and implement key catalytic projects that advance the community's vision for revitalization. On Long Island, the winners of previous rounds were Central Islip, Hicksville, and Westbury. The Executive Budget provides $100 million for the Downtown Revitalization Program Round IV.
New York State Grown & Certified Program: The Executive Budget continues support for the New York State Grown & Certified initiative. This program is designed to strengthen consumer confidence in New York State products, address food product labeling, and assist New York farmers so they can take advantage of the growing demand for local, high quality foods. Since its launching in 2016, the program has certified over 2,386 farms, representing over half a million acres of farmland.
Taste NY: Launched in 2013, Taste NY highlights and encourages the purchase of New York-made foods and beverages. The Taste NY Initiative has proven to be incredibly successful in raising the visibility of New York's high-quality food and agricultural products. To build on the success of 2018 and further connect New York producers to new markets, the Executive Budget invests $6.5 million to expand the Taste NY program to new welcome centers across the State.
Ensuring A Quality Education for All
Require Districts to Distribute State Aid in a More Equitable Manner to Their Neediest Schools: Although the state distributes 70 percent of its funding to the neediest districts, the districts do not always distribute funding to their schools in an equitable manner. In fact, some school districts have schools with significantly higher needs receiving less than the average school in the district. Governor Cuomo proposes to require that these school districts devote a portion of their 2019-20 school aid to increase the per-pupil allocation in those high-need schools. This increase in allocation will help ensure that funding intended to help improve educational outcomes for the neediest students reaches those students.
Increasing New York's Nation-Leading Education Investments: New York State continues progress in the strengthening of educational outcomes and increasing access to high-quality learning for all students. The FY 2020 Budget increases School Aid in Long Island by $99.3 million, including a $22.9 million increase in Foundation Aid.
Higher Education Infrastructure: Long Island will receive $34.3 million in capital funding to maintain and upgrade its SUNY higher educational facilities.
Free Tuition at Public Colleges: Approximately 40% (more than 26,100) of undergraduate fulltime resident students enrolled in public colleges from Long Island attend tuition free through the Excelsior Scholarship along with other sources of student financial assistance including the generous Tuition Assistance Program (TAP).
Advancing Criminal Justice for All
To improve fairness and make our criminal justice system more just, Governor Cuomo is advancing a comprehensive series of reforms, including:
- End cash bail once and for all
- Improve transparency in the discovery process
- Ensure the right to a speedy trial
- Abolish the death penalty
- Transform the use of solitary confinement
- Establish compassionate release for incarcerated individuals over the age of 55
- Enact a comprehensive re-entry package
Legalizing Adult Use Cannabis
In January 2018, Governor Cuomo directed the Department of Health to launch a multi-agency study to review the potential impact of regulated cannabis in New York. The study, issued last July, concluded that the positive impact of a regulated cannabis program in New York State outweighs the potential negative aspects. Building on extensive outreach and research, Governor Cuomo is proposing the establishment of a regulated cannabis program for adults 21 and over in the FY 2020 budget that protects public health, provides consumer protection, ensures public safety, addresses social justice concerns, and invests tax revenue. Specifically, the program will:
- Reduce impacts of criminalization affecting communities of color.
- Automatically seal certain cannabis-related criminal records.
- Implement quality control and consumer protections to safeguard public health.
- Counties and large cities can opt out.
- Restrict access to anyone under 21.
- Generate approximately $300 million in tax revenue and create jobs.
Advancing the Women's Justice Agenda
Governor Cuomo is proposing a robust agenda to advance justice for New York women. As part of this bold agenda, Governor will advance legislation to improve access to IVF and fertility preservation coverage, reduce maternal mortality and morbidity and racial disparities, and increase protections against harassment in the workplace. The Governor will also modernize New York's pay equity law, eliminate the statute of eliminations for rape and pass the Domestic Violence Survivors Justice Act.
Enacting the Democracy Agenda
The Governor already signed into law several of his voting reform priorities, including closing the LLC loophole, enacting early voting, synchronizing federal and state elections and pre-registration for minors. While these reforms are a pivotal step forward in encouraging every New Yorker to vote, Governor Cuomo's fiscal year 2020 Executive Budget proposes additional measures to modernize New York's voting laws, including:
- Voting before noon upstate: State Election Law currently prohibits poll places from opening before noon in primary elections only in upstate New York, creating unequal access to the polls across the state. New Yorkers everywhere are entitled to the same opportunity to vote, and this year New York will ensure that voting hours are extended for primary elections upstate to match voting hours across the rest of the state.
- Make Election Day a holiday: An inability to take time off of work should never be a barrier to voting. This year, New York will ensure that any New Yorker has time off to vote on Election Day.
- Automatic registration: Today New Yorkers are given the opportunity to register to vote when interacting with State agencies and they must affirmatively ask to be registered. The budget includes a proposal to reverse that process and register eligible New Yorkers to vote unless they affirmatively ask not to be registered. Automatic voter registration will not only boost voter registration and turnout in this state, it will also strengthen our democratic process.
- Online registration: Apart from DMV, there is currently no online option for voter registration in New York State. The budget includes a proposal to ensure automatic voter registration opportunities are available online, including allowing New Yorkers to apply to register to vote on the State Board of Elections website.
- Ban corporate contributions: Corporate money has overtaken our election system. The executive budget includes a proposal to ban all corporate contributions, restoring the power to the people and helping to remove dark money and special interest influences in our democratic process.
JUSTICE FOR ALL NEW YORKERS
Protecting Quality, Affordable Health Care
Codify Health Care Protections and Coverage Guarantees for New Yorkers: In light of the continued federal attacks on the ACA, Governor Cuomo believes it is essential that New York codify key ACA provisions, including the state's health insurance marketplace, as well as enhanced State regulatory protections into State law. This is critical to stabilizing the health insurance market and inoculating New York from any further federal attacks on the health care system.
Take Action to Achieve Universal Access to Health Care: Governor Cuomo is establishing a Commission on universal health care to be supported by Department of Health and Department of Financial Services, and comprised of health policy and insurance experts to develop options for achieving universal access to high-quality, affordable health care in New York. This review process will consider all options for expanding access to care, including strengthening New York's commercial insurance market, expanding programs to include populations that are currently ineligible or cannot afford coverage, as well as innovative reimbursement models to improve efficiency and generate savings to support expanded coverage.
Transform Health Care: The Budget continues to support Long Island's health care transformation through reauthorization of critical funding:
- Capital Restructuring Financing Program (Enacted FY 2015). Long Island has been awarded $88.2 million in grants to support regional hospitals;
- Essential Health Care Providers Program (Enacted FY 2016). Long Island has been awarded $24.1 million in grants to support regional hospitals;
- Statewide Health Care Facility Transformation Program I (Enacted FY 2017). Long Island has been awarded $29.7 million in grants; and
- Statewide Health Care Facility Transformation Program II (Enacted FY 2018). In the first phase of awards, Long Island has been awarded $17.5 million in grants.
Fighting to End the Opioid Epidemic
The budget provides approximately $25 million to address the heroin and opiate crisis on Long Island. This funding will be used to support a myriad of treatment programs, including 12 residential, 48 outpatient, and five opioid treatment programs, as well as one State-Operated Addiction Treatment Center. These programs may provide individual and group counseling, medication assisted treatment, educational services, case management, vocational assessment, and training for job skills, employment readiness, parenting, personal, and social and community living skills. In addition, the Governor is proposing to:
- Protect New Yorkers from predatory practices
- Expand access to Buprenorphine
- Expand access to Medication Assisted Treatment in criminal justice settings
- Increase access to Naloxone
- Launch a comprehensive substance use prevention blueprint for schools
Prevent Gang Recruitment
New York will ensure that young New Yorkers have the resources to avoid involvement in a gang and law enforcement have the tools to crackdown on gang members:
- The State is continuing its investment of over $45 million statewide this year to implement the bold, comprehensive vision laid out over the past year to eradicate MS-13.
- We will further enhance law enforcement intelligence and analysis capabilities, anti-gang operations, as well as fund violence prevention grants, build school-based supports, and improve State Park programming.
- These new programs will complement existing investments in both social services and public safety, building a comprehensive network to dismantle the immigration to victimization pipeline.
Creating Healthy Communities
Protect New Yorkers from Unknown Exposure to Toxic Chemicals: Governor Cuomo will introduce new legislation authorizing the Department of Environmental Conservation, the Department of Health and the Department of State to develop regulations establishing an on-package labeling requirement for designated products, indicating the presence of potentially hazardous chemicals, developing a list of the more than 1,000 carcinogens and other chemicals that will trigger labeling, and identifying the types of consumer products that will be subject to the new regime. DEC and DOH will be further empowered to require manufacturers to disclose the chemical contents of consumer products in sold or distributed in New York State and explore possible additional measures to protect consumers.
Control Health Threats from Tobacco: Governor Cuomo is proposing comprehensive legislation to combat the rising use of tobacco products. This legislation includes:
- Raising the minimum sales age for tobacco and electronic cigarette products from 18 to 21
- Ending the sale of tobacco and electronic cigarette products in pharmacies
- Clarify the Department of Health's authority to ban the sale of certain flavored e-cigarette liquids
- Restricting available discounts provided by tobacco and electronic cigarette manufacturers and retailers
- Introduce a tax on e-cigarettes
- Require e-cigarettes to be sold only through licensed retailers
Continuing New York's Environmental Leadership
Launching the Green New Deal: Amidst the Trump Administration's assault on the environment and in order to continue New York's progress in the fight against climate change, Governor Cuomo is announcing New York's Green New Deal, a nation-leading clean energy and jobs agenda that will put the state on a path to carbon neutrality across all sectors of New York's economy. At the Governor's direction, New York will move boldly to achieve this goal with specific near-term actions and long-term strategies to spur unparalleled innovation and transform the state's electric, transportation, and building infrastructure while prioritizing the needs of low- and moderate-income New Yorkers. This landmark initiative will further drive the growth of New York's clean energy economy, create tens of thousands of high-quality 21st century jobs, provide all New Yorkers with cleaner air and water by reducing harmful emissions, and set an example of climate leadership for the rest of the nation and world to follow.
Protect Ocean Waters from Offshore Drilling: The Executive Budget includes legislation that will protect New York State's environment and the $23 billion marine economy by prohibiting oil and gas development in the North Atlantic Planning Area. A spill would have devastating consequences to Long Island: wiping out the fishing industry, destroying Long Island's pristine beaches and tourism industry, and polluting the aquifer Long Island relies on for drinking water.
Clean Water Infrastructure Funding: The Executive Budget includes a $500 million appropriation to support additional investments in clean water projects throughout the State. This is the first installment of Governor Cuomo's commitment to providing an additional $2.5 billion in support over the next five years for drinking water infrastructure, wastewater infrastructure, and water quality protection.
- Long Island is particularly vulnerable to drinking water issues. Sandy soil allows contaminants, including nitrogen, to seep into the island's aquifer. This additional funding will further augment the State's investments in grants and loans to assist communities with upgrading their water infrastructure and ensuring all New Yorkers have access to clean water. Funding includes strategic investments to help address emerging contaminants, such as 1,4-dioxane and PFCs, as well as harmful algal blooms toxins.
Artificial Reef Initiative: This initiative seeks to improve New York's marine life and boost Long Island's recreational fishing and diving industries by creating new marine habitats using clean rock, concrete and steel in various forms. By strategically placing materials on the seafloor, this improves the biodiversity of the area as fish and encrusting organisms move in to the new habitat which begins to resemble a natural reef as it matures. New York has 12 artificial reefs, including two in the Long Island Sound, two in the Great South Bay, and eight in the Atlantic Ocean. Through this initiative, 38 new patch reefs were created on six of New York's artificial reef sites in 2018. The six sites that received materials include Fire Island, Hempstead, Moriches, Rockaway, and Shinnecock reefs in the Atlantic Ocean, and Smithtown reef in Long Island Sound. We will continue the initiative by developing reefs at 6 sites in 2019.
State Parks: The New York Works Program includes $110 million to rehabilitate state parks, continuing the infusion of capital dollars for New York's parks. The Executive Budget also includes $19.5 million for Municipal Parks statewide in 2019-20. While the 2019 awards have yet to be determined, in 2018, the following Long Island institutions and localities received more than $1.6 million in grants from this program:
- Old Westbury Gardens, Inc.
- Roslyn Landmark Society
- Planting Fields Foundation
- The Caumsett Foundation, Inc.
- Town of Shelter Island
DEC Infrastructure Investments: $55 million is allocated to the DEC to continue funding the Adventure NY initiative while also addressing a variety of capital needs including: public access projects to connect hunters, anglers, bird watchers and other outdoor enthusiasts to un-tapped State owned lands. This new funding will also provide for investments in health and safety repairs to State infrastructure, including dams, wetland restoration, State lands, fish hatcheries and other State infrastructure.
Environmental Protection Fund: The Executive Budget includes $300 million for the EPF, the highest level of funding in the program's history. Appropriations include $38 million for solid waste programs, $88 million for parks and recreation, $152 million for open space programs, and $21 million for the climate change mitigation and adaptation program. Specific EPF initiatives on Long Island include:
- $2 million for LI Pine Barrens Commission
- $4.5 million for Suffolk County for the Water Quality Improvement grant program
- $5 million for Nassau County for the Water Quality Improvement grant program
- $500,000 for the Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County
- $900,000 for LI South Shore Estuary Reserve
- $15 million for Zoos, Botanical Gardens, and Aquaria (ZBGA) statewide; While the ZBGA awards for 2019 have yet to be determined, in 2018, the following Long Island zoos, botanical gardens and aquariums received more than $390,000 in grants from this program:
- Environmental Centers of Setauket-Smithtown, Inc.
- Friends of Bailey Arboretum
- Friends of the Cold Spring Harbor Fish Hatchery and Aquarium
- Old Westbury Gardens
- Riverhead Foundation for Marine Research and Preservation
- Southampton Township Wildfowl Association
- The Ward Melville Heritage Organization
- Town of Brookhaven
- Town of North Hempstead
- Town of Smithtown
- Volunteers for Wildlife, Inc.
Ban Single Use Plastic Bags: The Executive Budget includes legislation to ban single-use plastic bags provided to customers. In March 2017, Governor Cuomo created the New York State Plastic Bag Task Force to develop comprehensive statewide recommendations. The ban will help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with bag production and disposal. DEC will work with stakeholders and community leaders to ensure the roll-out of this initiative does not disproportionately impact low and moderate income and environmental justice communities through the distribution of reusable bags and exemptions where appropriate.
Expand the Bottle Bill: The Executive Budget includes legislation to amend the Bottle Bill to expand the types of beverage containers covered under the RCA to include bottles from: sports drinks; energy drinks; fruit and vegetable beverages; ready-to-drink tea and coffee; and wellness beverages. This proposal will help reduce sorting and financial burdens on local government recycling programs. Additionally, the Governor will include amendments to the Bottle Bill legislation to address implementation issues and to respond to feedback from stakeholders, as well as enhanced penalties.